GONG Chen <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Ayaka Mikazuki <email@example.com>
Bing Jeung <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Henry Chan (@hfhchan)
2021, Boyuan Yang <email@example.com>
2010-2020 BYVoid <firstname.lastname@example.org>
OpenStreetMap and its contributors.
Ayaka Mikazuki <email@example.com>
Bing Jeung <firstname.lastname@example.org>
On Debian systems, the complete text of the Creative Commons Zero v1.0
Universal License can be found in "/usr/share/common-licenses/CC0-1.0".
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
On Debian systems, the complete text of the Apache version 2.0 license
can be found in `/usr/share/common-licenses/Apache-2.0'.
## ODC Open Database License (ODbL)
The Open Database License (ODbL) is a license agreement intended to
allow users to freely share, modify, and use this Database while
maintaining this same freedom for others. Many databases are covered by
copyright, and therefore this document licenses these rights. Some
jurisdictions, mainly in the European Union, have specific rights that
cover databases, and so the ODbL addresses these rights, too. Finally,
the ODbL is also an agreement in contract for users of this Database to
act in certain ways in return for accessing this Database.
Databases can contain a wide variety of types of content (images,
audiovisual material, and sounds all in the same database, for example),
and so the ODbL only governs the rights over the Database, and not the
contents of the Database individually. Licensors should use the ODbL
together with another license for the contents, if the contents have a
single set of rights that uniformly covers all of the contents. If the
contents have multiple sets of different rights, Licensors should
describe what rights govern what contents together in the individual
record or in some other way that clarifies what rights apply.
Sometimes the contents of a database, or the database itself, can be
covered by other rights not addressed here (such as private contracts,
trade mark over the name, or privacy rights / data protection rights
over information in the contents), and so you are advised that you may
have to consult other documents or clear other rights before doing
activities not covered by this License.
The Licensor (as defined below)
You (as defined below)
agree as follows:
### 1.0 Definitions of Capitalised Words
"Collective Database" – Means this Database in unmodified form as part
of a collection of independent databases in themselves that together are
assembled into a collective whole. A work that constitutes a Collective
Database will not be considered a Derivative Database.
"Convey" – As a verb, means Using the Database, a Derivative Database,
or the Database as part of a Collective Database in any way that enables
a Person to make or receive copies of the Database or a Derivative
Database. Conveying does not include interaction with a user through a
computer network, or creating and Using a Produced Work, where no
transfer of a copy of the Database or a Derivative Database occurs.
"Contents" – The contents of this Database, which includes the
information, independent works, or other material collected into the
Database. For example, the contents of the Database could be factual
data or works such as images, audiovisual material, text, or sounds.
"Database" – A collection of material (the Contents) arranged in a
systematic or methodical way and individually accessible by electronic
or other means offered under the terms of this License.
"Database Directive" – Means Directive 96/9/EC of the European
Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection
of databases, as amended or succeeded.
"Database Right" – Means rights resulting from the Chapter III ("sui
generis") rights in the Database Directive (as amended and as transposed
by member states), which includes the Extraction and Re-utilisation of
the whole or a Substantial part of the Contents, as well as any similar
rights available in the relevant jurisdiction under Section 10.4.
"Derivative Database" – Means a database based upon the Database, and
includes any translation, adaptation, arrangement, modification, or any
other alteration of the Database or of a Substantial part of the
Contents. This includes, but is not limited to, Extracting or
Re-utilising the whole or a Substantial part of the Contents in a new
"Extraction" – Means the permanent or temporary transfer of all or a
Substantial part of the Contents to another medium by any means or in
"License" – Means this license agreement and is both a license of rights
such as copyright and Database Rights and an agreement in contract.
"Licensor" – Means the Person that offers the Database under the terms
of this License.
"Person" – Means a natural or legal person or a body of persons
corporate or incorporate.
"Produced Work" – a work (such as an image, audiovisual material, text,
or sounds) resulting from using the whole or a Substantial part of the
Contents (via a search or other query) from this Database, a Derivative
Database, or this Database as part of a Collective Database.
"Publicly" – means to Persons other than You or under Your control by
either more than 50% ownership or by the power to direct their
activities (such as contracting with an independent consultant).
"Re-utilisation" – means any form of making available to the public all
or a Substantial part of the Contents by the distribution of copies, by
renting, by online or other forms of transmission.
"Substantial" – Means substantial in terms of quantity or quality or a
combination of both. The repeated and systematic Extraction or
Re-utilisation of insubstantial parts of the Contents may amount to the
Extraction or Re-utilisation of a Substantial part of the Contents.
"Use" – As a verb, means doing any act that is restricted by copyright
or Database Rights whether in the original medium or any other; and
includes without limitation distributing, copying, publicly performing,
publicly displaying, and preparing derivative works of the Database, as
well as modifying the Database as may be technically necessary to use it
in a different mode or format.
"You" – Means a Person exercising rights under this License who has not
previously violated the terms of this License with respect to the
Database, or who has received express permission from the Licensor to
exercise rights under this License despite a previous violation.
Words in the singular include the plural and vice versa.
### 2.0 What this License covers
2.1. Legal effect of this document. This License is:
a. A license of applicable copyright and neighbouring rights;
b. A license of the Database Right; and
c. An agreement in contract between You and the Licensor.
2.2 Legal rights covered. This License covers the legal rights in the
a. Copyright. Any copyright or neighbouring rights in the Database.
The copyright licensed includes any individual elements of the
Database, but does not cover the copyright over the Contents
independent of this Database. See Section 2.4 for details. Copyright
law varies between jurisdictions, but is likely to cover: the Database
model or schema, which is the structure, arrangement, and organisation
of the Database, and can also include the Database tables and table
indexes; the data entry and output sheets; and the Field names of
Contents stored in the Database;
b. Database Rights. Database Rights only extend to the Extraction and
Re-utilisation of the whole or a Substantial part of the Contents.
Database Rights can apply even when there is no copyright over the
Database. Database Rights can also apply when the Contents are removed
from the Database and are selected and arranged in a way that would
not infringe any applicable copyright; and
c. Contract. This is an agreement between You and the Licensor for
access to the Database. In return you agree to certain conditions of
use on this access as outlined in this License.
2.3 Rights not covered.
a. This License does not apply to computer programs used in the making
or operation of the Database;
b. This License does not cover any patents over the Contents or the
c. This License does not cover any trademarks associated with the
2.4 Relationship to Contents in the Database. The individual items of
the Contents contained in this Database may be covered by other rights,
including copyright, patent, data protection, privacy, or personality
rights, and this License does not cover any rights (other than Database
Rights or in contract) in individual Contents contained in the Database.
For example, if used on a Database of images (the Contents), this
License would not apply to copyright over individual images, which could
have their own separate licenses, or one single license covering all of
the rights over the images.
### 3.0 Rights granted
3.1 Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, the Licensor
grants to You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, terminable (but
only under Section 9) license to Use the Database for the duration of
any applicable copyright and Database Rights. These rights explicitly
include commercial use, and do not exclude any field of endeavour. To
the extent possible in the relevant jurisdiction, these rights may be
exercised in all media and formats whether now known or created in the
The rights granted cover, for example:
a. Extraction and Re-utilisation of the whole or a Substantial part of
b. Creation of Derivative Databases;
c. Creation of Collective Databases;
d. Creation of temporary or permanent reproductions by any means and
in any form, in whole or in part, including of any Derivative
Databases or as a part of Collective Databases; and
e. Distribution, communication, display, lending, making available, or
performance to the public by any means and in any form, in whole or in
part, including of any Derivative Database or as a part of Collective
3.2 Compulsory license schemes. For the avoidance of doubt:
a. Non-waivable compulsory license schemes. In those jurisdictions in
which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or
compulsory licensing scheme cannot be waived, the Licensor reserves
the exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You
of the rights granted under this License;
b. Waivable compulsory license schemes. In those jurisdictions in
which the right to collect royalties through any statutory or
compulsory licensing scheme can be waived, the Licensor waives the
exclusive right to collect such royalties for any exercise by You of
the rights granted under this License; and,
c. Voluntary license schemes. The Licensor waives the right to collect
royalties, whether individually or, in the event that the Licensor is
a member of a collecting society that administers voluntary licensing
schemes, via that society, from any exercise by You of the rights
granted under this License.
3.3 The right to release the Database under different terms, or to stop
distributing or making available the Database, is reserved. Note that
this Database may be multiple-licensed, and so You may have the choice
of using alternative licenses for this Database. Subject to Section
10.4, all other rights not expressly granted by Licensor are reserved.
### 4.0 Conditions of Use
4.1 The rights granted in Section 3 above are expressly made subject to
Your complying with the following conditions of use. These are important
conditions of this License, and if You fail to follow them, You will be
in material breach of its terms.
4.2 Notices. If You Publicly Convey this Database, any Derivative
Database, or the Database as part of a Collective Database, then You
a. Do so only under the terms of this License or another license
permitted under Section 4.4;
b. Include a copy of this License (or, as applicable, a license
permitted under Section 4.4) or its Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
with the Database or Derivative Database, including both in the
Database or Derivative Database and in any relevant documentation; and
c. Keep intact any copyright or Database Right notices and notices
that refer to this License.
d. If it is not possible to put the required notices in a particular
file due to its structure, then You must include the notices in a
location (such as a relevant directory) where users would be likely to
look for it.
4.3 Notice for using output (Contents). Creating and Using a Produced
Work does not require the notice in Section 4.2. However, if you
Publicly Use a Produced Work, You must include a notice associated with
the Produced Work reasonably calculated to make any Person that uses,
views, accesses, interacts with, or is otherwise exposed to the Produced
Work aware that Content was obtained from the Database, Derivative
Database, or the Database as part of a Collective Database, and that it
is available under this License.
a. Example notice. The following text will satisfy notice under
Contains information from DATABASE NAME, which is made available
here under the Open Database License (ODbL).
DATABASE NAME should be replaced with the name of the Database and a
hyperlink to the URI of the Database. "Open Database License" should
contain a hyperlink to the URI of the text of this License. If
hyperlinks are not possible, You should include the plain text of the
required URI's with the above notice.
4.4 Share alike.
a. Any Derivative Database that You Publicly Use must be only under
the terms of:
i. This License;
ii. A later version of this License similar in spirit to this
iii. A compatible license.
If You license the Derivative Database under one of the licenses
mentioned in (iii), You must comply with the terms of that license.
b. For the avoidance of doubt, Extraction or Re-utilisation of the
whole or a Substantial part of the Contents into a new database is a
Derivative Database and must comply with Section 4.4.
c. Derivative Databases and Produced Works. A Derivative Database is
Publicly Used and so must comply with Section 4.4. if a Produced Work
created from the Derivative Database is Publicly Used.
d. Share Alike and additional Contents. For the avoidance of doubt,
You must not add Contents to Derivative Databases under Section 4.4 a
that are incompatible with the rights granted under this License.
e. Compatible licenses. Licensors may authorise a proxy to determine
compatible licenses under Section 4.4 a iii. If they do so, the
authorised proxy's public statement of acceptance of a compatible
license grants You permission to use the compatible license.
4.5 Limits of Share Alike. The requirements of Section 4.4 do not apply
in the following:
a. For the avoidance of doubt, You are not required to license
Collective Databases under this License if You incorporate this
Database or a Derivative Database in the collection, but this License
still applies to this Database or a Derivative Database as a part of
the Collective Database;
b. Using this Database, a Derivative Database, or this Database as
part of a Collective Database to create a Produced Work does not
create a Derivative Database for purposes of Section 4.4; and
c. Use of a Derivative Database internally within an organisation is
not to the public and therefore does not fall under the requirements
of Section 4.4.
4.6 Access to Derivative Databases. If You Publicly Use a Derivative
Database or a Produced Work from a Derivative Database, You must also
offer to recipients of the Derivative Database or Produced Work a copy
in a machine readable form of:
a. The entire Derivative Database; or
b. A file containing all of the alterations made to the Database or
the method of making the alterations to the Database (such as an
algorithm), including any additional Contents, that make up all the
differences between the Database and the Derivative Database.
The Derivative Database (under a.) or alteration file (under b.) must be
available at no more than a reasonable production cost for physical
distributions and free of charge if distributed over the internet.
4.7 Technological measures and additional terms
a. This License does not allow You to impose (except subject to
Section 4.7 b.) any terms or any technological measures on the
Database, a Derivative Database, or the whole or a Substantial part of
the Contents that alter or restrict the terms of this License, or any
rights granted under it, or have the effect or intent of restricting
the ability of any person to exercise those rights.
b. Parallel distribution. You may impose terms or technological
measures on the Database, a Derivative Database, or the whole or a
Substantial part of the Contents (a "Restricted Database") in
contravention of Section 4.74 a. only if You also make a copy of the
Database or a Derivative Database available to the recipient of the
i. That is available without additional fee;
ii. That is available in a medium that does not alter or restrict
the terms of this License, or any rights granted under it, or have
the effect or intent of restricting the ability of any person to
exercise those rights (an "Unrestricted Database"); and
iii. The Unrestricted Database is at least as accessible to the
recipient as a practical matter as the Restricted Database.
c. For the avoidance of doubt, You may place this Database or a
Derivative Database in an authenticated environment, behind a
password, or within a similar access control scheme provided that You
do not alter or restrict the terms of this License or any rights
granted under it or have the effect or intent of restricting the
ability of any person to exercise those rights.
4.8 Licensing of others. You may not sublicense the Database. Each time
You communicate the Database, the whole or Substantial part of the
Contents, or any Derivative Database to anyone else in any way, the
Licensor offers to the recipient a license to the Database on the same
terms and conditions as this License. You are not responsible for
enforcing compliance by third parties with this License, but You may
enforce any rights that You have over a Derivative Database. You are
solely responsible for any modifications of a Derivative Database made
by You or another Person at Your direction. You may not impose any
further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed
under this License.
### 5.0 Moral rights
5.1 Moral rights. This section covers moral rights, including any rights
to be identified as the author of the Database or to object to treatment
that would otherwise prejudice the author's honour and reputation, or
any other derogatory treatment:
a. For jurisdictions allowing waiver of moral rights, Licensor waives
all moral rights that Licensor may have in the Database to the fullest
extent possible by the law of the relevant jurisdiction under Section
b. If waiver of moral rights under Section 5.1 a in the relevant
jurisdiction is not possible, Licensor agrees not to assert any moral
rights over the Database and waives all claims in moral rights to the
fullest extent possible by the law of the relevant jurisdiction under
Section 10.4; and
c. For jurisdictions not allowing waiver or an agreement not to assert
moral rights under Section 5.1 a and b, the author may retain their
moral rights over certain aspects of the Database.
Please note that some jurisdictions do not allow for the waiver of moral
rights, and so moral rights may still subsist over the Database in some
### 6.0 Fair dealing, Database exceptions, and other rights not affected
6.1 This License does not affect any rights that You or anyone else may
independently have under any applicable law to make any use of this
Database, including without limitation:
a. Exceptions to the Database Right including: Extraction of Contents
from non-electronic Databases for private purposes, Extraction for
purposes of illustration for teaching or scientific research, and
Extraction or Re-utilisation for public security or an administrative
or judicial procedure.
b. Fair dealing, fair use, or any other legally recognised limitation
or exception to infringement of copyright or other applicable laws.
6.2 This License does not affect any rights of lawful users to Extract
and Re-utilise insubstantial parts of the Contents, evaluated
quantitatively or qualitatively, for any purposes whatsoever, including
creating a Derivative Database (subject to other rights over the
Contents, see Section 2.4). The repeated and systematic Extraction or
Re-utilisation of insubstantial parts of the Contents may however amount
to the Extraction or Re-utilisation of a Substantial part of the
### 7.0 Warranties and Disclaimer
7.1 The Database is licensed by the Licensor "as is" and without any
warranty of any kind, either express, implied, or arising by statute,
custom, course of dealing, or trade usage. Licensor specifically
disclaims any and all implied warranties or conditions of title,
non-infringement, accuracy or completeness, the presence or absence of
errors, fitness for a particular purpose, merchantability, or otherwise.
Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion of implied warranties, so
this exclusion may not apply to You.
### 8.0 Limitation of liability
8.1 Subject to any liability that may not be excluded or limited by law,
the Licensor is not liable for, and expressly excludes, all liability
for loss or damage however and whenever caused to anyone by any use
under this License, whether by You or by anyone else, and whether caused
by any fault on the part of the Licensor or not. This exclusion of
liability includes, but is not limited to, any special, incidental,
consequential, punitive, or exemplary damages such as loss of revenue,
data, anticipated profits, and lost business. This exclusion applies
even if the Licensor has been advised of the possibility of such
8.2 If liability may not be excluded by law, it is limited to actual and
direct financial loss to the extent it is caused by proved negligence on
the part of the Licensor.
### 9.0 Termination of Your rights under this License
9.1 Any breach by You of the terms and conditions of this License
automatically terminates this License with immediate effect and without
notice to You. For the avoidance of doubt, Persons who have received the
Database, the whole or a Substantial part of the Contents, Derivative
Databases, or the Database as part of a Collective Database from You
under this License will not have their licenses terminated provided
their use is in full compliance with this License or a license granted
under Section 4.8 of this License. Sections 1, 2, 7, 8, 9 and 10 will
survive any termination of this License.
9.2 If You are not in breach of the terms of this License, the Licensor
will not terminate Your rights under it.
9.3 Unless terminated under Section 9.1, this License is granted to You
for the duration of applicable rights in the Database.
9.4 Reinstatement of rights. If you cease any breach of the terms and
conditions of this License, then your full rights under this License
will be reinstated:
a. Provisionally and subject to permanent termination until the 60th
day after cessation of breach;
b. Permanently on the 60th day after cessation of breach unless
otherwise reasonably notified by the Licensor; or
c. Permanently if reasonably notified by the Licensor of the
violation, this is the first time You have received notice of
violation of this License from the Licensor, and You cure the
violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.
Persons subject to permanent termination of rights are not eligible to
be a recipient and receive a license under Section 4.8.
9.5 Notwithstanding the above, Licensor reserves the right to release
the Database under different license terms or to stop distributing or
making available the Database. Releasing the Database under different
license terms or stopping the distribution of the Database will not
withdraw this License (or any other license that has been, or is
required to be, granted under the terms of this License), and this
License will continue in full force and effect unless terminated as
### 10.0 General
10.1 If any provision of this License is held to be invalid or
unenforceable, that must not affect the validity or enforceability of
the remainder of the terms and conditions of this License and each
remaining provision of this License shall be valid and enforced to the
fullest extent permitted by law.
10.2 This License is the entire agreement between the parties with
respect to the rights granted here over the Database. It replaces any
earlier understandings, agreements or representations with respect to
10.3 If You are in breach of the terms of this License, You will not be
entitled to rely on the terms of this License or to complain of any
breach by the Licensor.
10.4 Choice of law. This License takes effect in and will be governed by
the laws of the relevant jurisdiction in which the License terms are
sought to be enforced. If the standard suite of rights granted under
applicable copyright law and Database Rights in the relevant
jurisdiction includes additional rights not granted under this License,
these additional rights are granted in this License in order to meet the
terms of this License.
Attribution 4.0 International
Creative Commons Corporation ("Creative Commons") is not a law firm and
does not provide legal services or legal advice. Distribution of
Creative Commons public licenses does not create a lawyer-client or
other relationship. Creative Commons makes its licenses and related
information available on an "as-is" basis. Creative Commons gives no
warranties regarding its licenses, any material licensed under their
terms and conditions, or any related information. Creative Commons
disclaims all liability for damages resulting from their use to the
fullest extent possible.
Using Creative Commons Public Licenses
Creative Commons public licenses provide a standard set of terms and
conditions that creators and other rights holders may use to share
original works of authorship and other material subject to copyright
and certain other rights specified in the public license below. The
following considerations are for informational purposes only, are not
exhaustive, and do not form part of our licenses.
Considerations for licensors: Our public licenses are
intended for use by those authorized to give the public
permission to use material in ways otherwise restricted by
copyright and certain other rights. Our licenses are
irrevocable. Licensors should read and understand the terms
and conditions of the license they choose before applying it.
Licensors should also secure all rights necessary before
applying our licenses so that the public can reuse the
material as expected. Licensors should clearly mark any
material not subject to the license. This includes other CC-
licensed material, or material used under an exception or
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Considerations for the public: By using one of our public
licenses, a licensor grants the public permission to use the
licensed material under specified terms and conditions. If
the licensor's permission is not necessary for any reason--for
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licenses grant only permissions under copyright and certain
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the licensed material may still be restricted for other
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such as asking that all changes be marked or described.
Although not required by our licenses, you are encouraged to
respect those requests where reasonable. More considerations
for the public:
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License
By exercising the Licensed Rights (defined below), You accept and agree
to be bound by the terms and conditions of this Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International Public License ("Public License"). To the
extent this Public License may be interpreted as a contract, You are
granted the Licensed Rights in consideration of Your acceptance of
these terms and conditions, and the Licensor grants You such rights in
consideration of benefits the Licensor receives from making the
Licensed Material available under these terms and conditions.
Section 1 -- Definitions.
a. Adapted Material means material subject to Copyright and Similar
Rights that is derived from or based upon the Licensed Material
and in which the Licensed Material is translated, altered,
arranged, transformed, or otherwise modified in a manner requiring
permission under the Copyright and Similar Rights held by the
Licensor. For purposes of this Public License, where the Licensed
Material is a musical work, performance, or sound recording,
Adapted Material is always produced where the Licensed Material is
synched in timed relation with a moving image.
b. Adapter's License means the license You apply to Your Copyright
and Similar Rights in Your contributions to Adapted Material in
accordance with the terms and conditions of this Public License.
c. Copyright and Similar Rights means copyright and/or similar rights
closely related to copyright including, without limitation,
performance, broadcast, sound recording, and Sui Generis Database
Rights, without regard to how the rights are labeled or
categorized. For purposes of this Public License, the rights
specified in Section 2(b)(1)-(2) are not Copyright and Similar
d. Effective Technological Measures means those measures that, in the
absence of proper authority, may not be circumvented under laws
fulfilling obligations under Article 11 of the WIPO Copyright
Treaty adopted on December 20, 1996, and/or similar international
e. Exceptions and Limitations means fair use, fair dealing, and/or
any other exception or limitation to Copyright and Similar Rights
that applies to Your use of the Licensed Material.
f. Licensed Material means the artistic or literary work, database,
or other material to which the Licensor applied this Public
g. Licensed Rights means the rights granted to You subject to the
terms and conditions of this Public License, which are limited to
all Copyright and Similar Rights that apply to Your use of the
Licensed Material and that the Licensor has authority to license.
h. Licensor means the individual(s) or entity(ies) granting rights
under this Public License.
i. Share means to provide material to the public by any means or
process that requires permission under the Licensed Rights, such
as reproduction, public display, public performance, distribution,
dissemination, communication, or importation, and to make material
available to the public including in ways that members of the
public may access the material from a place and at a time
individually chosen by them.
j. Sui Generis Database Rights means rights other than copyright
resulting from Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases,
as amended and/or succeeded, as well as other essentially
equivalent rights anywhere in the world.
k. You means the individual or entity exercising the Licensed Rights
under this Public License. Your has a corresponding meaning.
Section 2 -- Scope.
a. License grant.
1. Subject to the terms and conditions of this Public License,
the Licensor hereby grants You a worldwide, royalty-free,
non-sublicensable, non-exclusive, irrevocable license to
exercise the Licensed Rights in the Licensed Material to:
a. reproduce and Share the Licensed Material, in whole or
in part; and
b. produce, reproduce, and Share Adapted Material.
2. Exceptions and Limitations. For the avoidance of doubt, where
Exceptions and Limitations apply to Your use, this Public
License does not apply, and You do not need to comply with
its terms and conditions.
3. Term. The term of this Public License is specified in Section
4. Media and formats; technical modifications allowed. The
Licensor authorizes You to exercise the Licensed Rights in
all media and formats whether now known or hereafter created,
and to make technical modifications necessary to do so. The
Licensor waives and/or agrees not to assert any right or
authority to forbid You from making technical modifications
necessary to exercise the Licensed Rights, including
technical modifications necessary to circumvent Effective
Technological Measures. For purposes of this Public License,
simply making modifications authorized by this Section 2(a)
(4) never produces Adapted Material.
5. Downstream recipients.
a. Offer from the Licensor -- Licensed Material. Every
recipient of the Licensed Material automatically
receives an offer from the Licensor to exercise the
Licensed Rights under the terms and conditions of this
b. No downstream restrictions. You may not offer or impose
any additional or different terms or conditions on, or
apply any Effective Technological Measures to, the
Licensed Material if doing so restricts exercise of the
Licensed Rights by any recipient of the Licensed
6. No endorsement. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or
may be construed as permission to assert or imply that You
are, or that Your use of the Licensed Material is, connected
with, or sponsored, endorsed, or granted official status by,
the Licensor or others designated to receive attribution as
provided in Section 3(a)(1)(A)(i).
b. Other rights.
1. Moral rights, such as the right of integrity, are not
licensed under this Public License, nor are publicity,
privacy, and/or other similar personality rights; however, to
the extent possible, the Licensor waives and/or agrees not to
assert any such rights held by the Licensor to the limited
extent necessary to allow You to exercise the Licensed
Rights, but not otherwise.
2. Patent and trademark rights are not licensed under this
3. To the extent possible, the Licensor waives any right to
collect royalties from You for the exercise of the Licensed
Rights, whether directly or through a collecting society
under any voluntary or waivable statutory or compulsory
licensing scheme. In all other cases the Licensor expressly
reserves any right to collect such royalties.
Section 3 -- License Conditions.
Your exercise of the Licensed Rights is expressly made subject to the
1. If You Share the Licensed Material (including in modified
form), You must:
a. retain the following if it is supplied by the Licensor
with the Licensed Material:
i. identification of the creator(s) of the Licensed
Material and any others designated to receive
attribution, in any reasonable manner requested by
the Licensor (including by pseudonym if
ii. a copyright notice;
iii. a notice that refers to this Public License;
iv. a notice that refers to the disclaimer of
v. a URI or hyperlink to the Licensed Material to the
extent reasonably practicable;
b. indicate if You modified the Licensed Material and
retain an indication of any previous modifications; and
c. indicate the Licensed Material is licensed under this
Public License, and include the text of, or the URI or
hyperlink to, this Public License.
2. You may satisfy the conditions in Section 3(a)(1) in any
reasonable manner based on the medium, means, and context in
which You Share the Licensed Material. For example, it may be
reasonable to satisfy the conditions by providing a URI or
hyperlink to a resource that includes the required
3. If requested by the Licensor, You must remove any of the
information required by Section 3(a)(1)(A) to the extent
4. If You Share Adapted Material You produce, the Adapter's
License You apply must not prevent recipients of the Adapted
Material from complying with this Public License.
Section 4 -- Sui Generis Database Rights.
Where the Licensed Rights include Sui Generis Database Rights that
apply to Your use of the Licensed Material:
a. for the avoidance of doubt, Section 2(a)(1) grants You the right
to extract, reuse, reproduce, and Share all or a substantial
portion of the contents of the database;
b. if You include all or a substantial portion of the database
contents in a database in which You have Sui Generis Database
Rights, then the database in which You have Sui Generis Database
Rights (but not its individual contents) is Adapted Material; and
c. You must comply with the conditions in Section 3(a) if You Share
all or a substantial portion of the contents of the database.
For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 4 supplements and does not
replace Your obligations under this Public License where the Licensed
Rights include other Copyright and Similar Rights.
Section 5 -- Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability.
a. UNLESS OTHERWISE SEPARATELY UNDERTAKEN BY THE LICENSOR, TO THE
EXTENT POSSIBLE, THE LICENSOR OFFERS THE LICENSED MATERIAL AS-IS
AND AS-AVAILABLE, AND MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF
ANY KIND CONCERNING THE LICENSED MATERIAL, WHETHER EXPRESS,
IMPLIED, STATUTORY, OR OTHER. THIS INCLUDES, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
WARRANTIES OF TITLE, MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
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ACCURACY, OR THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF ERRORS, WHETHER OR NOT
KNOWN OR DISCOVERABLE. WHERE DISCLAIMERS OF WARRANTIES ARE NOT
ALLOWED IN FULL OR IN PART, THIS DISCLAIMER MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
b. TO THE EXTENT POSSIBLE, IN NO EVENT WILL THE LICENSOR BE LIABLE
TO YOU ON ANY LEGAL THEORY (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
NEGLIGENCE) OR OTHERWISE FOR ANY DIRECT, SPECIAL, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, PUNITIVE, EXEMPLARY, OR OTHER LOSSES,
COSTS, EXPENSES, OR DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THIS PUBLIC LICENSE OR
USE OF THE LICENSED MATERIAL, EVEN IF THE LICENSOR HAS BEEN
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSSES, COSTS, EXPENSES, OR
DAMAGES. WHERE A LIMITATION OF LIABILITY IS NOT ALLOWED IN FULL OR
IN PART, THIS LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
c. The disclaimer of warranties and limitation of liability provided
above shall be interpreted in a manner that, to the extent
possible, most closely approximates an absolute disclaimer and
waiver of all liability.
Section 6 -- Term and Termination.
a. This Public License applies for the term of the Copyright and
Similar Rights licensed here. However, if You fail to comply with
this Public License, then Your rights under this Public License
b. Where Your right to use the Licensed Material has terminated under
Section 6(a), it reinstates:
1. automatically as of the date the violation is cured, provided
it is cured within 30 days of Your discovery of the
2. upon express reinstatement by the Licensor.
For the avoidance of doubt, this Section 6(b) does not affect any
right the Licensor may have to seek remedies for Your violations
of this Public License.
c. For the avoidance of doubt, the Licensor may also offer the
Licensed Material under separate terms or conditions or stop
distributing the Licensed Material at any time; however, doing so
will not terminate this Public License.
d. Sections 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 survive termination of this Public
Section 7 -- Other Terms and Conditions.
a. The Licensor shall not be bound by any additional or different
terms or conditions communicated by You unless expressly agreed.
b. Any arrangements, understandings, or agreements regarding the
Licensed Material not stated herein are separate from and
independent of the terms and conditions of this Public License.
Section 8 -- Interpretation.
a. For the avoidance of doubt, this Public License does not, and
shall not be interpreted to, reduce, limit, restrict, or impose
conditions on any use of the Licensed Material that could lawfully
be made without permission under this Public License.
b. To the extent possible, if any provision of this Public License is
deemed unenforceable, it shall be automatically reformed to the
minimum extent necessary to make it enforceable. If the provision
cannot be reformed, it shall be severed from this Public License
without affecting the enforceability of the remaining terms and
c. No term or condition of this Public License will be waived and no
failure to comply consented to unless expressly agreed to by the
d. Nothing in this Public License constitutes or may be interpreted
as a limitation upon, or waiver of, any privileges and immunities
that apply to the Licensor or You, including from the legal
processes of any jurisdiction or authority.
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